Suzanne M. Carbotte

My research involves marine geophysical studies of the formation and early evolution of the Earth's oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges, magma chamber processes, crustal evolution within plate interiors, and subduction zone properties. I make use of marine reflection seismic imaging, as well as other marine geophysical methods including sonar mapping, magnetics, gravity, and deep submergence studies. I am also involved in the development of cyberinfrastructure for geosciences providing data tools and services for the academic marine geoscience community. I have been a participant on 16 marine research expeditions since 1986, 7 as Chief, Co-Chief or co-PI. My field-work includes expeditions in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans as well as near shore studies of sediment processes in the New York region.

Fields of Interest

Marine Geophysics, Mid-Ocean Ridges, Multi-channel Seismics, Crustal Evolution, Subduction Processes, Ocean Floor Geomorphology, Ocean Floor Mapping, Geoinformatics, Hudson Estuary


  • 1982 H.B.Sc. in Geology and Physics, University of Toronto, Ontario
  • 1986 M.Sc. in Geophysics, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario
  • 1992 Ph.D. in Marine Geophysics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA

Honors & Awards

  • 2015 AGU Fellow
  • 2010 Ridge2000 Distinguished Lecturer
  • 2008 Birch Lectureship
  • 2008 UCSB Distinguished Alumni Award
  • 2007 Bruce C. Heezen Research Chair, LDEO, Columbia U
  • 1993 LDEO Postdoctoral Fellow, Columbia U
  • 1993 NSERC Canada Post-Doctoral Fellowship – declined
  • 1982 Governor General's Silver Medal, Trinity College, University of Toronto, Ont.

Carbotte, S.M., Arnulf, A., Spiegelman, M, Lee, M., Harding, A., Kent, G., Canales,J.P. Nedimović, M.R. (2020). Stacked sills forming a deep melt-mush feeder conduit beneath Axial Seamount, Geology, 48, https:// 2020.

Zhu, J., Canales, J. P., Han, S., Carbotte, S. M., Arnulf, A., & Nedimović,M.R.
(2020). Vp/Vs ratio of incoming sediments off Cascadia subduction zone from analysis of controlled source multicomponent OBS records. Journal of Geophysical Research: 125, e2019JB019239. 10.1029/2019JB019239. 2020.

*Boulahanis, B., Carbotte, S. M., Huybers, P. J., Nedimović, M. R., Aghaei, O., Canales, J. P., & Langmuir, C. H. (2020). Do sea level variations influence mid-ocean ridge magma supply? A test using crustal thickness and bathymetry data from the East Pacific Rise. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 535, 116121. 2020.

*Marjanovic, M. S.M. Carbotte, H. Carton, J.P. Canales, M. Nedimovic, J.C. Mutter, Characteristics of the crustal magmatic system beneath the East Pacific Rise 8º20’ to 10º10’ N  and implications for magmatic segmentation and melt transport, G-Cubed, 19, no. 11 (2018): 4584-4611, 2018.

*Han, S., S.M. Carbotte, J.P. Canales, M. Nedimovic, H. Carton, Along-Trench Structural Variations of the Subducting Juan de Fuca Plate from Multichannel Seismic Reflection Imaging, J. Geophys. Res. 123(4), 3122-3146, 2018.

*Han, S.  S. M. Carbotte, N. L. Bangs, D. Sa¬ffer, and J. C. Gibson Variations in sediment consolidation along the Cascadia margin and contribution to forearc deformation and megathrust slip behavior, Nature Geoscience, 10, 954-960, 2017.

Canales, J.P., S.M. Carbotte, M.R. Nedimovic, H. Carton, Water Content of the Juan de Fuca Plate Entering the Cascadia Subduction Zone, Nature Geoscience. 10, p865-872. 2017.

Ferguson, David  J.,  Yinqi Li, Charles Langmuir, Kassandra M. Costa, Jerry F. McManus, Peter Huybers & Suzanne M. Carbotte, High-resolution time series reveals rapid transitions of mid-ocean ridge magma composition, Geology, 45, 491-494. 2017.

Aghaei, O. M. Nedimović, P. Canales, S. M. Carbotte and H. Carton, Application of amplitude variation with angle of incidence technique to constrain melt content of two large mid-crustal off-axis melt lenses imaged at the East Pacific Rise from 9º37.5’N to 9º57’N, J. Geophys. Res. 2017.

Costa, K.J. F. McManus, G. Winckler, C. Langmuir, P. Huybers, S. Carbotte, B. Boulahanis, A. Thurnherr, Insights into the near-ridge environment from stratigraphy and physical properties of sediment on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Marine Geology, v380, p163- 173, 2016.

Horning, G., Juan Pablo Canales, Suzanne M. Carbotte, Shuoshuo Han, Hélène Carton, M. R. Nedimović, and P. E. Keken. "A 2‐D tomographic model of the Juan de Fuca plate from accretion at axial seamount to subduction at the Cascadia margin from an active source ocean bottom seismometer survey. J. Geophys. Res. 121, no. 8 (2016): 5859-5879. 2016.

Huybers, P., Langmuir, C., Katz, R.F., Ferguson, D. Proistosescu , C and S.M. Carbotte, Comment on ''Sensitivity of seafloor bathymetry to climate-driven fluctuations in mid-ocean ridge magma supply'',  Science 352 (6292), 1405. 2016.

*Han, S., Carbotte, S. M., Canales, J. P., Nedimović, M. R., Carton, H., Gibson, J. C., & Horning, G. W. (2016). Seismic reflection imaging of the Juan de Fuca plate from ridge to trench: new constraints on the distribution of faulting and evolution of the crust prior to subduction. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 1849–1872, doi:10.1002/2015JB012416. 2016.

Carbotte, Suzanne M., Deborah K. Smith, Mathilde Cannat, Emily M. Klein, Tectonic and Magmatic Segmentation of the Global Ocean Ridge System: Synthesis of Observations and Definition of a Spreading Cell, Geological Society of London. Special Publications 420, SP420. 5. 2016.

Abadi, S.H., W.  Wilcock, M. Tolstoy, T. Crone, and S. Carbotte, Sound source localization technique using a seismic streamer and its extension for whale localization during seismic surveys. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 138, no. 6 (2015): 3951-3963. 2015.

Hsu, Leslie, Kerstin A. Lehnert, Andrew Goodwillie, John W. Delano, James B. Gill, Maurice A. Tivey, Vicki L. Ferrini, S. M. Carbotte, and Robert A. Arko. "Rescue of long-tail data from the ocean bottom to the Moon: IEDA Data Rescue Mini-Awards." GeoResJ 6 (2015): 108-114. 2015.

*Marjanovic, M. H.C. Carton, S.M. Carbotte, J.P Canales, M. Nedimovic, Distribution of melt along the East Pacific Rise from 9º30′ to 10ºN from an amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) technique, Geophysical Journal Int. 2015.

*Marjanovic, M. S.M. Carbotte, H.C. Carton, J.P Canales, M. Nedimovic, A multi-sill magma plumbing system beneath the East Pacific Rise, Nature Geoscience, 7 (11), 825-829. 2014.

*Han, S., Carbotte, S.M., H. Carton, M.R. Nedimović, J.C. Mutter, Architecture of Off-Axis Magma Bodies at EPR 9˚N and Its Implication on Oceanic Crustal Accretion, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 390, 31-44. 2014.
Arnulf, A.F., A. J. Harding, G. M. Kent, S. M. Carbotte,, J. P. Canales and M. R. Nedimović, Anatomy of an active submarine volcano, Geology, 42 (8), 655-658. 2014.

Xu, M., Canales, J.P., Carbotte, S.M., H. Carton, M.R. Nedimović, J.C. Mutter, Variations in axial magma chamber properties along the East pacific Rise (9°30’-10°00’N) from 3D seismic imaging and 1D waveform inversion, Journal of Geophy. Res. 119 (4), 2721-2744. 2014.

Aghaei, O., M R. Nedimović, H. Carton, S.M. Carbotte, J. P. Canales and J. C. Mutter, Crustal thickness and Moho character from poststack-migrated 3D MCS data collected over the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise from 9˚42’N to 9˚57’N, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 15 (3), 634-657, doi:10.1002/2013GC005069. 2014.

Abadi, SH, M Tolstoy, WSD Wilcock, TJ Crone, SM Carbotte, Baleen whale localization using hydrophone streamers during seismic reflection surveys, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 136 (4), 2092-2092. 2013.

Carbotte, S.M., M. Marjanovic, H. Carton,  J.C. Mutter, Canales, J.P., M.R. Nedimović, S. Han, M. Perfit, Fine-scale segmentation of the crustal magma reservoir beneath the East Pacific Rise, Nature Geoscience. 6 (10), 866-870. 2013.

Carbotte, S.M., Canales, J.P., M.R. Nedimović, H. Carton,  J.C. Mutter, Recent Seismic Studies at the East Pacific Rise 8°20’–10°10’N and Endeavour Segment Insights into Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal and Magmatic Processes,  Oceanography 25(1):100–112,, 2012.

Canales, J.P., H. Carton, S.M. Carbotte, J.C. Mutter, M.R. Nedimović, M. Xu, O.Aghaei, M. Marjanović, K. Newman Off-axis crustal magma plumbing at the East Pacific Rise from three-dimensional seismic reflection images, Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo1377, 2012.

Kelley, D.S., S.M. Carbotte, D.W. Caress, D.A. Clague, J.R. Delaney, J.B. Gill, H. Hadaway, J.F. Holden, E.E.E. Hooft, J.P. Kellogg, M.D. Lilley, M. Stoermer, D. Toomey, R. Weekly, and W.S.D. Wilcock. Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge: One of the Most Remarkable Places on Earth2012. Oceanography 25(1):44–61,, 2012

Canales, J.P., H. Carton, J.C. Mutter, A. Harding, S.M. Carbotte, and M.R. Nedimović. Recent Advances in Multichannel Seismic Imaging for Academic Research in Deep Oceanic Environments. Oceanography 25(1):113–115,, 2012.

Nitsche, F.O., A. Slagle, W.B.F. Ryan, S. Carbotte, R. Bell, R. Flood, Human impacts on Hudson River morphology and sediments – a result of changing uses and interests, Human impacts on the Hudson River Valley, SUNY Press, 2011.

*Marjanovic, M., S. Carbotte, M. R. Nedimović, J.P. Canales, Gravity and Seismic Study of Crustal Structure Along the Juan de Fuca Ridge Axis and Across Pseudofaults on the Ridge Flanks, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, Q05008, doi:10.1029/2010GC003439, 2011

Newman, K., M. R. Nedimović, J. P. Canales and S. M. Carbotte Evolution of seismic layer 2B at the Juan 1 de Fuca Ridge from hydrophone streamer 2D traveltime tomography, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, Q05009, doi:10.1029/2010GC003462, 2011.

*Baran, J., S. M. Carbotte, J. R. Cochran and M. R. Nedimović , Evolution of upper crustal seismic properties along the South East Indian Ridge within young crust (0-550 ka) and variation with axial morphology,  G-cubed, 11, Q02001, doi:10.1029/2009GC002629, 2010.

Ryan, W.B.F., Carbotte, S.M., Coplan, J.O., O’Hara, S., Melkonian, A., Arko, R., Weissel, R.A., Ferrini, V., Goodwillie, A., Nitsche, F., Bonczkowski, J., Zemsky, R., The Global Multi-Resolution Topography Synthesis, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, doi: 10.1029/2008GC002332, 2009. 

*Baran, J.M., Cochran, J.R., Holmes, C.R., Tolstoy, M., and S.M. Carbotte, Constraints on the mantle temperature gradient along the Southeast Indian Ridge from crustal structure and isostacy: Implications for the transition from an axial high to an axial valley, Geophysical Journal International, 179, Issue 1, pp 144-153, 2009.

Nedimovic, M.R., Bohnenstiehl, D. Carbotte, S.M., J.P. Canales, and R.P. Dziak, Faulting and hydration of the Juan de Fuca plate system, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.04.013, 2009.

Canales, J.P., Nedimović, M. R., Kent G., Carbotte, S.M., and R. S. Detrick, Seismic reflection images of a near-axis melt sill within the lower crust at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Nature, 460, 89-93, doi:10.1038/nature08095, 2009.

Mutter, J.C., Carbotte, S.M., Nedimovic, M., Canales, J.P., and Carton, H. (2009) - Seismic imaging in three dimensions on the East Pacific Rise, EOS, vol. 90 no. 42, 374-375, 2009.

Nedimovic, M., S.M. Carbotte, J. B. Diebold, , A.J. Harding , J.P. Canales, G.M. Kent, Upper crustal evolution along the Juan de Fuca ridge flanks. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 9, doi:10.1029/2008GC002085. 2008.

Carbotte, S.M., M. Nedimovic, J.P. Canales, G.M. Kent, , A.J. Harding, M. Marjanovic, Variable crustal structure along the Juan de Fuca Ridge: influence of on-axis hot spots and absolute plate motions. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 9, doi:10.1029/2007GC001922. 2008.

Ferrini, V.,L. Tivey, M.K., Carbotte, S.M., F. Martinez, F. and C. Roman, Variable morphologic expression of volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes at six hydrothermal vent fields in the Lau back-arc basin, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q07022, doi:10.1029/2008GC002047, 2008.

Soule, A., V.L. Ferrini, J. C. Kinsey, D. J. Fornari, C. Sellers, S. M. White, K. V. Damm, and S. M. Carbotte, Navigational infrastructure at the East Pacific Rise 9° 50'N area following the 2005-06 eruption: seafloor benchmarks and near-bottom multibeam surveys, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, doi:10.1029/2008GC002070, 2008.

*Supak, S., Carbotte, S.M., and K. C. Macdonald, Influence of ridge migration and proximity to hot spots on the morphology of slow- and intermediate-spreading centers, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst..8 Q01010, doi:10.1029/2006GC001387, 2007.

Van Ark, E. M., R. S. Detrick, J. P. Canales, S. M. Carbotte, A. J. Harding, G. M. Kent, M. R. Nedimovic, W. S. D. Wilcock, J. B. Diebold, and J. M. Babcock, Seismic structure of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Correlations with seismicity and hydrothermal activity, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B02401, doi:10.1029/2005JB004210, 2007.

Nitsche, F. O., W.B.F Ryan, S.M. Carbotte, R.E. Bell, A.Slagle, C. Bertinado, R. Flood, T. Kenna, C. McHugh, Regional Patterns and Local Variations of Sediment Distribution in the Hudson River Estuary, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 71, 259-277, 2007. 

Ferrini, V.L., D.J. Fornari, T.M. Shank, S.A. Soule, S.M. Carbotte, M.A. Tivey and L.L. Whitcomb, Sub-meter Bathymetric Mapping of the East Pacific Rise Crest at 9° 50’N: Linking Volcanic and Hydrothermal Processes, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q01006, doi:10.1029/2006GC001333, 2007.

Carbotte, S.M., W.B.F. Ryan, S. O’Hara, R. Arko, V. Ferrini, A. Goodwillie, A. Melkonian, R.Weissel Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry and Geophysical Data Synthesis: An On-Line Digital Data Resource for Marine Geoscience Research in the Southern Ocean. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1047, DOI: 10.3133/of2007-1047.srp002, 2007.

Carbotte, S.M., R. S. Detrick, A. Harding, J.P. Canales, J. Babcock, G. Kent, E. Van Ark, M. Nedimovic, J. Diebold, Rift topography linked to magmatism at the intermediate spreading Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geology, 34, 209–212, 2006. 

Canales, J. P. , Singh, Satish C. , Detrick, R. S., Carbotte, S. M. Harding, A. , Kent, G. M., Diebold, J. B. J. Babcock, Nedimovic, M. R., Seismic Evidence for Variations in Axial Magma Chamber Properties Along the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 246, 353-366, 2006.

Strayer, D. L., Malcom, H. M., Bell., R.E., Carbotte, S.M., Nitsche, F.O., Using geophysical information to define benthic habitats in a large river, Freshwater Biology, 51,25-38, 2006. 

*Slagle, A.L., Ryan, W.B.F., Carbotte, S.M., Bell, R.E., Nitsche, F.O. and T. Kenna, Late-stage estuary infilling controlled by limited accommodation space in the Hudson River, Marine Geology, 232, 181-202, 2006.

White, S. M., R. M. Haymon, and S. Carbotte, A new view of ridge segmentation and near-axis volcanism at the East Pacific Rise, 8°-12°N, from EM300 multibeam bathymetry, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7, Q12O05, doi:10.1029/2006GC001407, 2006. 

*Baran, J.M., J. R. Cochran, S. M. Carbotte and M. Nedimovic, Variations in Upper Crustal Structure due to Variable Mantle Temperature Along the Southeast Indian Ridge, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 6, q11002, doi:10.1029/2005gc000943, 2005. 

Nedimovic, M Carbotte, S. Harding, A, Detrick, R.S., Canales, P.J., Kent, G. M., Tischer, M., Diebold, J., J. Babcock, Frozen subcrustal magma lenses, Nature 436, 1149-1152, 2005.

Canales, J. P, Robert S. Detrick, S. M. Carbotte, Graham M. Kent, John B. Diebold, Alistair Harding, Jeffrey Babcock, Mladen Nedimovic, and Emily van Ark Upper Crustal Structure and Axial Topography at Intermediate-Spreading Ridges: Seismic Constraints from the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge, J. Geophys. Res.,  110, B12104, doi:10.1029/2005JB003630, 2005.
Bell, R. E., R. D. Flood, S. Carbotte, W. B.F. Ryan, C. McHugh, M. Cormier, R. Versteeg, H. Bokuniewicz, V.L. Ferrini, J. Thissen, J. W. Ladd and E. A. Blair, Benthic habitat mapping in the Hudson River Estuary, in Hudson River Estuary, edited by Jeffrey Levinton and John Waldman, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Nitsche,F.O.,  R. Bell, S. M. Carbotte, W. B. F. Ryan, A. Slagle, S. Chillrud, T. Kenna, R. Flood, V. Ferrini, R. Cerrato, C. McHugh, D. Strayer, Integrative Acoustic Mapping Reveals Hudson River Sediment Processes and Habitats, EOS v 86, no 24, pp 225, 229, 2005.

Nitsche, F. O., S. Carbotte, W. Ryan and R. Bell.A seabed classification approach based on multiple acoustic sensors in the Hudson River Estuary. In: D.M. FitzGerald and J.Knight (eds.), High resolution morpho-dynamics and sedimentary evolution of estuaries, 33-55. Springer, Netherlands, 2005. 

Zühlsdorff, L., M. Hutnak, A. T. Fisher V. Spiess, E. E. Davis, M. Nedimovic, S. Carbotte, H. Villinger, K. Becker, Site Surveys related to IODP Expedition 301: ImageFlux (SO149) and RetroFlux (TN116) Expeditions and earlier studies, in Fisher, A.T., Urabe, T., Klaus, A., and the Expedition 301 Scientists, Proc. IODP, 301: College Station TX (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.),, doi:10.2204/iodp.proc.301.102.2005, 1-48, 2005.

Carbotte, S.M., C. Small, and K. Donnelly, The influence of ridge migration on the magmatic segmentation of mid-ocean ridges, Nature, 429, 743-746, 2004.

McHugh, C.M.G., Pekar, S., Ryan, W.B.F., Carbotte, S., Bell, R., Burckle, L., and Christie-Blick, N., Spatial variations in a condensced interval between estuarine and open-marine settings: Holocene  Hudson River Estuary and adjacent continental shelf, Geology 32, 169-172; DOI 10.1130/G20150.1, 2004.

Carbotte, S.M., R.E. Bell, W.B.F. Ryan,  C. McHugh, A. Slagle, F. Nitsche, J. Rubenstone,. Environmental change and oyster colonization within the Hudson River estuary linked to Holocene climate. Geo-Marine Letters 24: 212–224 DOI 10.1007/s00367-004-0179-9, 2004. 

Nitsche, F.O., R. Bell, S. Carbotte, W.B.F.  Ryan and R Flood.  Process related classification of acoustic data from the Hudson River estuary, Marine Geology, 209, 131–145, 2004.

Pekar, SF, C.M.G. McHugh, N. Christie-Blick, M. Jones, S.M. Carbotte and RE Bell, Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Estuarine processes and their stratigraphic record: paleosalinity and sedimentation changes in the Hudson Estuary, Marine Geology, 209, 113- 129, 2004.

Katz, R., M Spiegelman, SM Carbotte, Ridge migration, asthenospheric flow and the origin of magmatic segmentation in the global mid-ocean ridge system, Geophys. Res. Lett.  31, doi:10.1029/2004GL020388, 2004.

Carbotte, S. and D.S. Scheirer, Variability of Ocean Crustal Structure Created Along the Global Midocean Ridge, invited contribution to Hydrogeology of the Oceanic Lithosphere, ed. E.E. Davis and H. Elderfield, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Carbotte, S.M. et al., New Integrated Data Management System for Ridge2000 and MARGINS Research, EOS vol 85, Dec 21, pg 553, 559, 2004.

Carbotte, S.M., W.B.F. Ryan, M. Cormier, W. Jin, E. Bergmanis, J. Sinton, and S. White, Magmatic Subsidence of the EPR 18°14’S revealed through fault restoration of ridge crest bathymetry, in press Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, G cubed. Vol. 4, doi:10.1029/2002GC000337, Jan 23 2003.

Correa, G. J.P., Spiegelman, M., Carbotte, S., and J.C. Mutter, Centered and staggered Fourier derivatives and Hilbert transforms, Geophysics, 67, 1558-1563, 2002.

Bohnenstiehl, D.R. and S.M. Carbotte, Faulting patterns near 19°30’S on the East Pacific Rise: Fault formation and growth at a superfast-spreading center, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol 2, Sept. 5, 2001.

Carbotte, S.M., G. Ponce-Correa, and A. Solomon, Evaluation of morphological indicators of magma supply and segmentation from a seismic reflection study of the EPR 15°30’-17°°N, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 2737-2759, 2000.
Ponce-Correa, G, J.C. Mutter, and S.M. Carbotte, Fresnel zone: A pitfall in seismic imaging of mid-ocean ridge magma lenses, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3021-3024, 1999.
Carbotte, S.M., C.Z. Mutter, J. Mutter, and  G. Ponce-Correa, Influence of magma supply and spreading rate on crustal magma bodies and emplacement of the extrusive layer: insights from an intermediate-fast spreading ridge, Geology, 26, 455-458, 1998.
Carbotte, S.M., J. C. Mutter and L. Xu, Contribution of tectonism and volcanism to axial and flank morphology of the southern EPR from a study of Layer 2A geometry, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 10,165-10,184, 1997.

Buck, W.R., S.M. Carbotte, and C.Z. Mutter, Controls on Extrusion at Mid-Ocean Ridges, Geology, 25, 935-938, 1997.

Mutter, J.C., S.M. Carbotte, W. Su, L. Xu, P. Buhl, R.S. Detrick, G. Kent, J. Orcutt, and A. Harding, Seismic images of active magma systems beneath the East Pacific Rise 17° to 17°35S, Science, 268,  391-395, 1995.

Carbotte, S.M. and K.C. Macdonald, Comparison of sea floor tectonic fabric created at intermediate, fast and super fast spreading ridges: Influence of spreading rate, plate motions, and ridge segmentation on fault patterns,  J. Geophys. Res., 99, 13,609-13,633, 1994.

Carbotte, S.M. and K.C. Macdonald, The axial topographic high at intermediate and fast spreading ridges, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 128, 85-97, 1994.
Macdonald, K.C., D.S. Scheirer, S. Carbotte, and P.J. Fox, It's only Topography,  GSA Today,  3,  30-34, 1993.

Haymon, R.M., D.J. Fornari, K.L. Von Damm, M.D. Lilley, M.R. Perfit, J.M. Edmond, W.C. Shanks, III, R.A. Lutz, J.M. Gebmeier, S. Carbotte, D. Wright, E. Mclaughlin, M. Smith, N. Beedle, and E. Olson, Volcanic eruption of the mid-ocean ridge along the East Pacific Rise crest at 9°45-52'N: Direct submersible observations of seafloor phenomena associated with an eruption event in April 1991, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 119, 85-101, 1993.

Carbotte, S.M., and K.C. Macdonald, East Pacific Rise 8°-10°30'N: Evolution of ridge segments and discontinuities from SeaMARC II and three-dimensional magnetic studies,  J. Geophys. Res. 97, 6959-6982, 1992.

Macdonald, K., P.J. Fox, S. Carbotte, M. Eisen, S. Miller, L. Perram, D. Scheirer, S. Tighe and  C. Weiland,  The East Pacific Rise and its  flanks 8°-17°N: History of segmentation, propagation and spreading direction based on SeaMARC II and Sea Beam studies,  Marine Geophys. Res.,  14, 299-344, 1992.  

Carbotte, S.M., S.M. Welch and K.C. Macdonald, Spreading rates, rift propagation and fracture zone offset histories during the past 5 my on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; 25°-27°30'S and 31°-34°30'S, Mar. Geophys. Res. 13: 51-80, 1991.

Macdonald, K.C., Scheirer, and S. Carbotte, Mid-ocean ridges: discontinuities, segments and giant cracks, Science, 253, 986-994, 1991.

Haymon, R.M., D.J. Fornari, M.H. Edwards, S. Carbotte, D. Wright, and K.C. Macdonald, Hydrothermal vent distribution along the East Pacific Rise crest (9°09'-9°54'N) and its relationship to magmatic and tectonic processes on fast spreading mid-ocean ridges, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. , 104,  513-534, 1991.
Carbotte, S.M., and K.C. Macdonald, Causes of variation in fault facing direction on the ocean floor, Geology 18: 749-752, 1990.

Carbotte, S. M., J.M. Dixon, E. Farrar, E.E. Davis, and R.P. Riddihough, Geological and geophysical characteristics of the Tuzo Wilson Seamounts: implications for plate geometry in the vicinity of the Pacific - North America - Explorer triple junction,  Can. J. Earth Sci. 26: 2365-2384, 1989.

Macdonald, K.C., P.J. Fox, L.J. Perram, M.F. Eisen, R.M. Haymon, S.P. Miller, S.M. Carbotte, M.-H. Cormier and A.N. Shor, A new view of the mid-ocean ridge from the behavior of ridge axis discontinuities, Nature 335: 217-225, 1988.