Christopher J. Zappa

Christopher Zappa is a Lamont Research Professor in and the Associate Director of Ocean and Climate Physics, and a Lecturer in Earth and Environmental Sciences. He attended Columbia University as an undergraduate and earned a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering in 1992.  Prior to joining Columbia in 2003, he received his Masters in Engineering in 1994 and his PhD in Applied Ocean Physics in 1999 from the University of Washington, Seattle and completed his Postdoctoral Scholar Award at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 2003.  He was an ONR Young Investigator from 2004-2007 and the 2017 Schmidt Ocean Institute 5th Anniversary Impact Award recipient. He was awarded a Fulbright Scholar in 2018 to study unoccupied aerial systems at the University of Napoli, Parthenope.  

His research interests include air-sea interaction, air-sea gas exchange, ocean surface gravity-capillary waves, wind-wave interaction, wave dynamics and wave breaking, near-surface ocean and atmospheric turbulence, boundary-layer processes of heat, mass, momentum, and energy transport, infrared, multispectral, and polarimetric remote sensing, upper-ocean processes, polar ocean processes, coastal and estuarine processes.  He has led a continuing evolution of the development of measurement systems for air-sea interaction, heat exchange and small-scale processes. He has developed an airborne infrared dual-imaging technique to characterize sea surface temperature variability at scales ranging from O(1m) to O(1km).  He has worked to develop imaging techniques that use polarization of visible radiation to quantify the phase-resolved fine-scale ocean surface capillary-gravity waves.  Currently, he is developing a multispectral infrared imaging system for the direct remote measurement of momentum and heat flux at the ocean surface (i.e., the viscous shear stress and thermal gradient in the aqueous viscous sublayer).  Finally, he is a leader in unoccupied aerial systems (UAS) and their measurement sensing capabilities.

Fields of Interest

Air-sea interaction, air-sea gas exchange, wave dynamics and wave breaking, near-surface ocean and atmospheric turbulence, boundary-layer processes of heat, mass, and momentum transport, infrared, multispectral, and polarimetric remote sensing, upper-ocean processes, polar ocean processes, coastal and estuarine dynamics.  In particular, my area of expertise includes the measurement of ocean surface gravity-capillary waves, their interpretation through spectral analysis, and wind-wave interaction.  I have led a continuing evolution of the development of measurement systems for air-sea interaction, heat exchange and small-scale processes.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington, 1999
  • M.S.E., University of Washington, 1994
  • B.S.M.E., Columbia University, 1992

Honors & Awards

  • Fulbright Scholar 2018
  • Schmidt Ocean Institute Impact Award 2017
  • Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award 2004 to 2007
  • Lorenz B. Straub Award 2001
  • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Postdoctoral Scholar Award 1999-2002

Miller, U. K., C. J. Zappa, A. L. Gordon, S.-T. Yoon, C. Stevens, and W. S. Lee. (2024) High Salinity Shelf Water production in Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea from high-resolution near-surface salinity observations, Nature Communications., doi:10.1038/s41467-023-43880-1, in press.


Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A., C. J. Zappa, K. Randolph, and J. B. Edson (2023), Scaling the bubble penetration depth in the open ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 128(9), e2022JC019582, doi:10.1029/2022JC019582.


Lindsay, J., D.D.W. Hauser, A. R. Mahoney, K. Laidre, J. Goodwin, C. Harris, R. J. Schaeffer, R. Schaeffer Sr., A. V. Whiting, P. L. Boveng, N. J.M. Laxague, S. Betcher, A. Subramaniam, C. R. Witte, J. M. Lindsay, and C. J. Zappa.  (2023) Characteristics of ringed seal (natchiq, Pusa hispida) denning habitat in Kotzebue Sound during a year of limited sea ice and snow, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 705, 1-20, doi:10.3354/meps14252.


Witte, C. R., C. J. Zappa, and J. B. Edson (2023), The Response of Ocean Skin Temperature to Rain: Observations and Implications for Parameterization of Rain-Induced Fluxes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 128(1), e2022JC019146, doi:10.1029/2022JC019146.


Miller, U. K., C. J. Zappa, S. F. Zippel, J. T. Farrar, and R. A. Weller (2023), Scaling of moored surface ocean turbulence measurements in the Southeast Pacific Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 128(1), e2022JC018901, doi:10.1029/2022JC018901.


Brinkerhoff, C. B., C. J. Gleason, C. J. Zappa, P. A. Raymond, and M. H. Harlan.  (2022) Remotely Sensing River Greenhouse Gas Exchange Velocity Using the SWOT Satellite, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle, 36(10), e2022GB007419, doi:10.1029/2022GB007419.


Fairall, C. W., M. Yang, S. E. Brumer, B. W. Blomquist, J. B. Edson, C. J. Zappa, L. Bariteau and S. Pezoa, T.G. Bell, and E. S. Saltzman (2022) Air-sea trace gas fluxes: direct and indirect measurements, Frontiers Marine Science - Ocean Observation, 9 (826606), doi: 10.3389/fmars.2022.826606.


Friedrichs, D. M., J. B. McInerney, H. J. Oldroyd, W. S. Lee, S. Yun, S.-T. Yoon, C. L. Stevens, C. J. Zappa, C. F. Dow, D. Mueller, O. Sepúlveda Steiner, A. L. Forrest, (2022) Submesoscale eddies enhance heat transport beneath Antarctic cold cavity ice shelves, Nature Communications Earth & Environment, 3(1), 140, doi:10.1038/s43247-022-00460-3.


Zippel, S. F., J. T. Farrar, C. J. Zappa, A. J. Plueddemann, (2022), Parsing the Kinetic Energy Budget of the Ocean Surface Mixed Layer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 49, e2021GL095920. Doi:10.1029/2021GL095920.


Ribas-Ribas, M., C. J. Zappa, and O. Wurl (2021), Technologies for observing the near sea surface, in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards, edited by S. K. J. E.S. Kappel, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, pp. 88–89, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), doi:10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-32.


Zippel, S. F., J. T. Farrar, C. J. Zappa, U. Miller, L. St. Laurent, T. Ijichi, R. A. Weller, L. McRaven, S. Nylund, and D. Le Bel (2021), Moored Turbulence Measurements Using Pulse-Coherent Doppler Sonar, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 38(9), 1621-1639, doi:10.1175/jtech-d-21-0005.1.


Hauser, D. D.W., A. V. Whiting, A. R. Mahoney, J. Goodwin, C. Harris, R. J. Schaeffer, R. Schaeffer Sr., N. J.M. Laxague, A. Subramaniam, C. R. Witte, S. Betcher, J. M. Lindsay, and C. J. Zappa.  (2021) Co-production of knowledge reveals loss of Indigenous hunting opportunities in the face of accelerating Arctic climate change, Environmental Research Letters, 16(9), 095003, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac1a36.


Mahoney, A. R., K. Turner, D. D.W. Hauser, N. J.M. Laxague, J. M. Lindsay, A. V. Whiting, C. R. Witte, J. Goodwin, C. Harris, R. J. Schaeffer, R. Schaeffer Sr., S. Betcher, A. Subramaniam, and C. J. Zappa. (2021) Thin ice, deep snow and surface flooding in Kotzebue Sound: landfast ice mass balance during two anomalously warm winters and implications for marine mammals and subsistence hunting, Journal of Glaciology, 1-15, doi:10.1017/jog.2021.49.


Witte, C. R., C. J. Zappa, A. R. Mahoney, J. Goodwin, C. Harris, R. E. Schaeffer, R. Schaeffer Sr., Sarah Betcher, D. D.W. Hauser, N. Laxague, J. M. Lindsay, V. Schaeffer, A. Subramaniam, K. E. Turner, and A. Whiting.  (2021) The Winter Heat Budget of Sea Ice in Kotzebue Sound: Residual Ocean Heat and the Seasonal Roles of River Outflow, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(9), e2020JC016784, doi:10.1029/2020JC016784.


Le Bel, D. A., C. J. Zappa, G. Budillon, and A. L. Gordon (2021), Salinity response to atmospheric forcing of the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, Antarctic Science, 33(3), 318-331, doi:10.1017/S0954102021000146.


Clayson, C. A., L. Centurioni, M. F. Cronin, J. Edson, S. Gille, F. Muller-Karger, R. Parfitt, L. D. Riihimaki, S. R. Smith, S. Swart, D. Vandemark, A. B. V. Bôas, C. J. Zappa, and D. Zhang (2021), Super Sites for Advancing Understanding of the Oceanic and Atmospheric Boundary Layers, Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 55(3), 144-145, doi:10.4031/MTSJ.55.3.11.


Tian, L., H. Xie, S. F. Ackley, K. J. Tinto, R. E. Bell, C. J. Zappa, Y. Gao, and A. M. Mestas-Nuñez (2020), Sea ice freeboard in the Ross Sea from airborne altimetry IcePod 2016–2017 and a comparison with IceBridge 2013 and ICESat 2003–2008, Remote Sensing, 12(14), 10.3390/rs12142226.


Laxague, N. J. M., and C. J. Zappa (2020), The impact of rain on ocean surface waves and currents, Geophys. Res. Lett., 47(7), e2020GL087287, 10.1029/2020GL087287.


Laxague, N. J. M., and C. J. Zappa (2020), Observations of mean and wave orbital flows in the ocean’s upper centimetres, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 887, A10, 10.1017/jfm.2019.1019.


Zappa, C. J., S. M. Brown, N. J. M. Laxague, T. Dhakal, R. A. Harris, A. M. Farber, and A. Subramaniam (2020), Using ship-deployed high-endurance unmanned aerial vehicles for the study of ocean surface and atmospheric boundary layer processes, Frontiers in Marine Science, 6(777), 10.3389/fmars.2019.00777.


Zappa, C. J., N. J. M. Laxague, S. E. Brumer, and S. P. Anderson (2019), The impact of wind gusts on the ocean thermal skin layer, Geophysical Research Letters, 46(20), 11301-11309, 10.1029/2019GL083687.


Brigham, B. A., J. A. Bird, A. R. Juhl, C. J. Zappa, A. D. Montero, and G. D. O'Mullan (2019), Anthropogenic inputs from a coastal megacity are linked to greenhouse gas concentrations in the surrounding estuary, Limnol. Oceanogr., 64(6), 2497-2511, 10.1002/lno.11200.


Swart, S., S. T. Gille, B. Delille, S. Josey, M. Mazloff, L. Newman, A. F. Thompson, J. Thomson, B. Ward, M. D. du Plessis, E. C. Kent, J. Girton, L. Gregor, P. Heil, P. Hyder, L. P. Pezzi, R. B. de Souza, V. Tamsitt, R. A. Weller, and C. J. Zappa (2019), Constraining Southern Ocean Air-Sea-Ice Fluxes Through Enhanced Observations, Frontiers in Marine Science, 6(421), 10.3389/fmars.2019.00421.


Wurl, O., W. M. Landing, N. I. H. Mustaffa, M. Ribas-Ribas, C. R. Witte, and C. J. Zappa (2019), The ocean's skin layer in the tropics, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 10.1029/2018JC014021.


Teta, R., G. Esposito, M. Casazza, C. J. Zappa, T. A. Endreny, A. Mangoni, V. Costantino, and M. Lega (2019), Bioindicators as a tool in environmental impact assessment: Cyanobacteria as a sentinel of pollution, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 14(1), 1-8, 10.2495/SDP-V14-N1-1-8.


Rahlff, J., M. Ribas-Ribas, S. M. Brown, N. I. H. Mustaffa, J. Renz, M. A. Peck, K. Bird, M. Cunliffe, K. Melkonian, and C. J. Zappa (2018), Blue pigmentation of neustonic copepods benefits exploitation of a prey-rich niche at the air-sea boundary, Scientific Reports, 8(11510), doi:10.1038/s41598-018-29869-7.


Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A., J. B. Edson, and C. J. Zappa (2018), Air–Sea Interaction in the Southern Ocean: Exploring the Height of the Wave Boundary Layer at the Air–Sea Interface, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 169(3), 461-482, 10.1007/s10546-018-0376-0.


Laxague, N. J. M., C. J. Zappa, D. A. LeBel, and M. L. Banner (2018), Spectral characteristics of gravity-capillary waves, with connections to wave growth and microbreaking, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(7), 4576-4592, doi:10.1029/2018JC013859.


Dow, C. F., W. S. Lee, J. S. Greenbaum, C. A. Greene, D. D. Blankenship, K. Poinar, A. L. Forrest, D. A. Young, and C. J. Zappa (2018), Basal channels drive active surface hydrology and transverse ice shelf fracture, Science Advances, 4(6), 10.1126/sciadv.aao7212.


Wurl, O., K. Bird, M. Cunliffe, W. M. Landing, U. Miller, N. I. H. Mustaffa, M. Ribas-Ribas, C. Witte, and C. J. Zappa (2018), Warming and inhibition of salinization at the ocean's surface by Cyanobacteria, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45(9), 4230-4237, doi:10.1029/2018GL077946.


Lega, M., R. Teta, M. Casazza, and C. J. Zappa (2018), Environmental impact assessment: a multi-level, multi-parametric framework for coastal waters, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 13(8), 1041-1049, 10.2495/SDP-V13-N8-1041-1049.


Blomquist, B. W., S. E. Brumer, C. W. Fairall, B. J. Huebert, C. J. Zappa, I. M. Brooks, M. Yang, L. Bariteau, J. Prytherch, J. E. Hare, H. Czerski, A. Matei, and R. W. Pascal (2017), Wind Speed and Sea State Dependencies of Air-Sea Gas Transfer: Results From the High Wind Speed Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS), Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(10), 8034-8062, doi:10.1002/2017JC013181.


Brumer, S. E., C. J. Zappa, B. W. Blomquist, C. W. Fairall, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, J. B. Edson, I. M. Brooks, and B. J. Huebert (2017), Wave-related Reynolds number parameterizations of CO2 and DMS transfer velocities, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(19), 9865-9875, doi:10.1002/2017GL074979.


Lund, B., C. J. Zappa, H. C. Graber, and A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen (2017), Shipboard wave measurements in the Southern Ocean, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 34(9), 2113-2126, doi:10.1175/jtech-d-16-0212.1.


Brumer, S. E., C. J. Zappa, I. M. Brooks, H. Tamura, S. M. Brown, B. W. Blomquist, C. W. Fairall, and A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen (2017), Whitecap coverage dependence on wind and wave statistics as observed during SO GasEx and HiWinGS, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 47(9), 2211-2235, doi:/10.1175/jpo-d-17-0005.1.


Small, C., and C. J. Zappa (2017), Mapping the diurnal thermal response of the urban heat island with Landsat TIRS, 2017 Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), doi: 10.1109/JURSE.2017.7924532.


Wurl, O., W. Ekau, W. M. Landing, and C. J.  Zappa, (2017) Sea surface microlayer in a changing ocean – A perspective, Elementa Science of the Anthropocene, 5(31), doi:10.1525/elementa.228.


Bell, R. E., W. Chu, J. Kingslake, I. Das, M. Tedesco, K. J. Tinto, C. J. Zappa, M. Frezzotti, A. Boghosian, and W. S. Lee (2017), Antarctic ice shelf potentially stabilized by export of meltwater in surface river, Nature, 544(7650), 344-348, doi:10.1038/nature22048.


Randolph, K., H. M. Dierssen, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, W. M. Balch, E. C. Monahan, C. J. Zappa, D. T. Drapeau, and B. Bowler (2016), Novel methods for optically measuring whitecaps under natural wave-breaking conditions in the Southern Ocean, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 34(3), 533-554, 10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0086.1.


Loose, B., A. Lovely, P. Schlosser, C. J. Zappa, W. R. McGillis, and D. Perovich, (2016), Currents and convection cause enhanced gas exchange in the ice-water boundary layer, Tellus B, 68, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v68.32803.


Holgerson, M. A., C. J. Zappa, and P. A. Raymond (2016), Substantial overnight reaeration by convective cooling discovered in pond ecosystems, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(15), 8044-8051, doi:10.1002/2016GL070206.


Zappa, C. J., M. L. Banner, R. P. Morison, and S. E. Brumer (2016), On the variation of the effective breaking strength in oceanic sea states, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46(7), 2049-2061, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0227.1.


Brumer, S. E., C. J. Zappa, S. P. Anderson, and J. P. Dugan (2016), Riverine skin temperature response to subsurface processes in low wind speeds, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121(3), 1721-1735, doi:10.1002/2015JC010746.


Kiefhaber, D., C. J. Zappa, and B. Jähne (2015), Influence of natural surfactants on short wind waves in the coastal Peruvian waters, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12(4), 1291-1325, doi:10.5194/osd-12-1291-2015.


Kiefhaber, D., G. Caulliez, C. J. Zappa, J. Schaper, and B. Jähne (2015), Water wave measurement from stereo images of specular reflections, Measurement Science and Technology, 26(11), 115401, doi:10.1088/0957-0233/26/11/115401.


Lovely, A., B. Loose, P. Schlosser, W. McGillis, C. J. Zappa, D. Perovich, S. Brown, T. Morell, D. Hsueh, and R. Friedrich (2015), The Gas Transfer through Polar Sea ice experiment: Insights into the rates and pathways that determine geochemical fluxes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(12), 8177-8194, doi:10.1002/2014JC010607.


Chen, S. S., B. W. Kerns, N. Guy, D. P. Jorgensen, J. Delanoë, N. Viltard, C. J. Zappa, F. Judt, C.-Y. Lee, and A. Savarin (2015), Aircraft observations of dry air, ITCZ, convective cloud systems and cold pools in MJO during DYNAMO, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(3), 405-423, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00196.1.


Banner, M. L., C. J. Zappa, and J. R. Gemmrich, (2014) A note on Phillips' spectral framework for ocean whitecaps, Journal of Physical Oceanography, DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-13-0126.1.


Wei, J., M. Lewis, R. V. Dommelen, C. J. Zappa, and M. Twardowski (2014), Wave-induced light field fluctuations in measured irradiance depth profiles: A wavelet analysis, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JC009572.


Randolph, K., H. M. Dierssen, M. Twardowski, A. Cifuentes Lorenzen, C. J. Zappa, (2014) Optical measurements of small deeply-penetrating bubble populations generated by breaking waves in the Southern Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JC009227.


Loose, B., W. R. McGillis, D. Perovich, C. J. Zappa, and P. Schlosser (2014), A parameter model of gas exchange for the seasonal sea ice zone, Ocean Sci., 10, 17-28, doi:10.5194/os-10-17-2014.


Moum, J., S. P. d. Szoeke, W. D. Smyth, J. B. Edson, H. L. DeWitt, A. J. Moulin, E. J. Thompson, C. J. Zappa, S. Rutledge, R. H. Johnson, and C. W. Fairall (2013), Air-sea interactions for westerly wind bursts during the November 2011 MJO in the Indian Ocean, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-1112-00225.00221.


Gemmrich, J. R., C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, and R. P. Morison, (2013) Wave breaking in developing and mature seas, Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 118, 4542–4552, doi:10.1002/jgrc.2.


Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A., J.B. Edson, C.J. Zappa, L. Bariteau, (2013) A multi-sensor comparison of ocean wave frequency spectra from a research vessel during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30, 2907-2925, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00181.1.


Schnieders, J., C. Garbe, B. Peirson, G. Smith, C. J. Zappa (2013) Analyzing the footprints of near surface aqueous turbulence: An image processing based approach, Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 118, 1272–1286, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20102.


Asher, W.E., H. Liang, C.J. Zappa, M.R. Loewen, M.A. Mukto, T.M. Litchendorf, and A.T. Jessup, (2012) Statistics of surface divergence and their relation to air-water gas transfer velocity, Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 117, C05035, doi:10.1029/ 2011JC007390.


Zappa, C. J., M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, (2012) An Overview of Sea State Conditions and Air-Sea Fluxes during RaDyO, Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 117, C00H19, doi:10.1029/2011JC007336.


Dickey, T., M.-C. Alboussiere, M. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, M. Cimono, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, E. Firing, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, , N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, J. Hummon,  S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, K. Melville, M. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Röttgers, H. Schultz, D. Siegel, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Sokólski, P. Sutherland, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramski, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, (2012). Introduction to special section on Recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 117, C00H20, doi:10.1029/2012JC007964.


Raymond, P. A., C. J., Zappa, D. Butman, T. L. Bott, J. Potter, P. Mulholland, A. E. Laursen, W. H. McDowell, and Denis Newbold (2012). Scaling the gas transfer velocity and hydraulic geometry in streams and small rivers. Limnology and Oceanography – Fluids and Environment, 2, doi:10.1215/21573689-1597669, 41–53.


Moore, T.S., M.D. DeGrandpre, C.L. Sabine, C.J., Zappa, W.R. McGillis, R.C. Hamme, R.A. Feely, and W. M. Drennan, (2011). Sea surface pCO2 and O2 in the Southern Ocean during the Austral Fall, 2008. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 116, C00F11, doi:10.1029/2010JC006560.


You, Y., G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, (2011) Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 116, C00H05, doi:10.1029/2011JC007278.


Edson, J. B. , C. W. Fairall, L. Bariteau, C. J. Zappa, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, W. R.  McGillis, S. Pezoa, J. E. Hare, and D. Helmig, (2011) Direct covariance measurement of CO2 gas transfer velocity during the 2008 Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment: Wind speed dependency, Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 116, C00F10, doi:10.1029/2011JC007022.


Lauvset, S. K., W. R. McGillis, L. Bariteau, C. W. Fairall, T. Johannessen, A. Olsen, and C.J., Zappa, (2011), Direct measurements of CO2 flux in the Greenland Sea, Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L12603, doi:10.1029/2011GL047722.


Turk, D., C.J., Zappa, C.S. Meinen, J. Christian, D.T. Ho, A.G. Dickson, and W.R. McGillis, (2010). Rain impacts on CO2 exchange in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L23610, doi:10.1029/2010GL045520.


Orton, P.M., C.J. Zappa, and W.R. McGillis, (2010). Tidal and atmospheric influences on the near-surface turbulence in an estuary. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, C12029, doi:10.1029/2010JC006312.


Cassano, J. J., J. A. Maslanik, C. J. Zappa, A. L. Gordon, R. I. Cullather, and S. L. Knuth (2010), Wintertime observations of an Antarctic polynya with unmanned aircraft systems, Eos, 91(28), 245–246.


Orton, P. M., W. McGillis, and C. J. Zappa (2010), Sea breeze forcing of estuary turbulence and air-water CO2 exchange, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37(L13603), doi:10.1029/2010GL043159.


Zappa, C.J., D.T. Ho, W.R. McGillis, M. L. Banner, J.W.H. Dacey, L.F. Bliven, B. Ma, and J. Nystuen (2009). Rain-induced turbulence and air-sea gas transfer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C07009, doi:10.1029/2008JC005008.


Jessup, A.T., W.E. Asher, M. Atmane, K. Phadnis, C.J. Zappa, M.R. Loewen (2009). Evidence for complete and partial surface renewal at an air-water interface. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L16601, doi:10.1029/2009GL038986.


Wells, A.J., C. Cenedese, J.T. Farrar, and C.J. Zappa, (2009), Variations in ocean surface temperature due to near surface flow: Straining the cool skin layer. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39 (11), 2685­–2710.


Zappa, C.J., M.L. Banner, H.J. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L.B. Wolff, & J. Yalcin (2008), Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging, Measurement Science and Technology, 19 (055503), doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/19/5/055503.

***Article received special recognition as “Featured Article.”***


Zappa, C. J., W. R. McGillis, P. A. Raymond, J. B. Edson, E. J. Hintsa, H. J.Zemmelink, J. W. H. Dacey, and D. T. Ho (2007), Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems. Geophysical Research Letters, 34 (L10601), doi:10.1029/ 2006GL028790.


Farrar, J.T., C.J. Zappa, R.A. Weller, and A.T. Jessup (2007), Sea surface temperature signatures of oceanic internal waves in low winds. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112 (C06014), doi:10.1029/2006JC003947.


Edson, J.B., T. Crawford, J. Crescenti, J. T. Farrar, N. Frew, G. Gerbi, C. Helmis, T. Hristov, D. Khelif, A. Jessup, H. Jonsson, M. Li, L. Mahrt, W. McGillis, A. Plueddemann, L. Shen, E. Skyllingstad, T. Stanton, P. Sullivan, J. Sun, J. Trowbridge, D. Vickers, S. Wang, Q. Wang, R. Weller, J. Wilkin, D. Yue, and C.J. Zappa (2007),  The Coupled Boundary Layers and Air-Sea Transfer Experiment in Low Winds (CBLAST-LOW). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88 (3), 341-356, doi:10.1175/BAMS-88-3-341.


Zappa, C.J., and A.T. Jessup (2005), High resolution airborne infrared measurements of ocean skin temperature, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2 (2), doi:10.1109/LGRS.2004.841629.


Zappa, C.J., W.E. Asher, A.T. Jessup, J. Klinke, and S.R. Long (2004), Microbreaking and the enhancement of air-water transfer velocity, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109 (C08S16), doi:10.1029/2003JC001897.


Edson, J.B., C.J. Zappa, J. Ware, W.R. McGillis, and J.E. Hare (2004), Scalar flux profile relationships over the open ocean, J Geophys. Res., 109 (C08S09), doi:10.1029/2003JC001960.


McGillis, W.R., J.B. Edson, C.J. Zappa, J.D. Ware, S.P. McKenna, E.A. Terray, J.E. Hare, C.W. Fairall, William Drennan, Mark Donelan, M.D. DeGrandpre, R. Wanninkhof, and R.A. Feely (2004), Air-sea CO2 exchange in the equatorial Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 109 (C08S02), doi:10.1029/2003JC002256.


Ho, D.T., C.J. Zappa, W.R. McGillis, L.F. Bliven, B. Ward, J.W.H. Dacey, P. Schlosser, and M.B. Hendricks (2004), Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109 (C08S18), doi:10.1029/2003JC001806.


Hintsa, E. J., J. W. H. Dacey, W. R. McGillis, J. B. Edson, C. J. Zappa, and H. J. Zemmelink (2004), Sea-to-air fluxes from measurements of the atmospheric gradient of dimethylsulfide and comparison with simultaneous relaxed eddy accumulation measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C01026, doi:10.1029/2002JC001617.


Zappa, C.J., P.A. Raymond, E. Terray, and W.R. McGillis (2003), Variation in surface turbulence and the gas transfer velocity over a tidal cycle in a macro-tidal estuary, Estuaries, 26 (6), 1401–1415.


Zappa, C.J., W.E. Asher, and A.T. Jessup (2001a), Microscale wave breaking and air–water gas transfer, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (5), 9385–9391.


Zappa, C.J., A.T. Jessup, and H.H. Yeh (1998), Skin-layer recovery of free-surface wakes: Relationship to surface renewal and dependence on heat flux and background turbulence, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (C10), 21711–21722.


Jessup, A.T., C.J. Zappa, and H. Yeh (1997b), Defining and quantifying microscale wave breaking with infrared imagery, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102 (C10), 23145–23154.


Jessup, A.T., C.J. Zappa, M.R. Loewen, and V. Hesany (1997a), Infrared remote sensing of breaking waves, Nature, 385 (6611), 52-55.